Allergic reactionssuch as hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) are caused by an oversensitivity or over-reaction of the immune system to a particular allergen. An allergen is a substance that is foreign to the body and which can cause an allergic reaction in certain people. For example, pollen, dander, mold, some germs. In most people, the immune reaction to these foreign substances is normal and appropriate. But in allergic people, it is excessive. For example, in people with hay fever, contact with pollen in the nose, throat and eyes triggers the mast cells there to release much more histamine than normal. This excessive release of histamine produces the associated symptoms of itching, swelling, runny eyes, etc.
Antihistamines work by physically blocking the H1 receptors, stopping histamine from reaching its target. This decreases your body's reaction to allergens and therefore helps to reduce the troublesome symptoms associated with allergy.
Histamine is a chemical naturally produced by various cells in your body. It has a variety of different functions. Large amounts of histamine are made in cells called mast cells, in places where the body comes into contact with the outside environment. For example, in the nose, throat, lungs and skin. Here, mast cells and histamine form part of your immune defence system.
Ciclesonide is a glucocorticoids used to treat obstructive airway diseases. It is marketed under the brand name Alvesco for asthma and Omnaris/Omniair for hayfever in the US & Canada. Phase 3 trials for the hayfever indication outside the US are ongoing.Pharmacodynamics
Prodrug converted to active metabolite, des-ciclesonide, after topical administration. Negligible serum concentrations following intranasal administration. Des-ciclesonide C max below 30 pg/mL.
Following IV administration, Vd of ciclesonide and des-ciclesonide are approximately 2.9 and 12.1 L/kg, respectively, and protein binding averages at least 99% for ciclesonide and its metabolite.
Des-ciclesonide is metabolized in the liver by the CYP3A4 isozyme and, to a lesser degree, CYP2D6.
After IV administration, predominantly excreted in the feces (66%) and approximately 20% or less in the urine.
Hepatic Function Impairment. When administered by oral inhalation, dosage adjustments are not needed in patients with hepatic function impairment.
D Loratin is used to treat the symptoms of allergies, such as sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose. It is also used to treat skin hives and itching in people with chronic skin reactions.
D Loratin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Pharmacology: Long-acting histamine antagonist with selective H -receptor antagonist which has a selective and peripheral H1-antagonist action. Histamine is a chemical that causes many of the signs that are part of allergic reactions, such as the swelling of tissues. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be "activated," releasing other chemicals which produce the effects that we associate with allergies. D Loratin blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of cells by histamine. Unlike most other antihistamines, D Loratin does not enter the brain from the blood and, therefore, does not cause drowsiness.
Cetirizine can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase some of the side effects of cetirizine. Tell your doctor if you regularly use other medicines that make you sleepy (such as other cold or allergy medicine, narcotic pain medicine,
pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for seizures, depression, or anxiety). They can add to sleepiness caused by cetirizine. Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve, if they get worse, or if you also have a fever.
You should not use this medication if you are allergic to cetirizine.
Before taking cetirizine, tell your doctor about all of your medical conditions.
FDA pregnancy category B. This medication is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Cetirizine can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use cetirizine without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.
Older adults may need to take a lower than normal dose. Follow your doctor's instructions.
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, wait until then to take the medicine and skip the missed dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.
Overdose symptoms may include feeling restless or nervous, and then feeling drowsy.
Tell your doctor if you regularly use other medicines that make you sleepy (such as other cold or allergy medicine, narcotic pain medicine, pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for seizures, depression, or anxiety). They can add to sleepiness caused by cetirizine. Cetirizine can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase some of the side effects of cetirizine.
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using cetirizine and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
· fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeat;
· weakness, tremors (uncontrolled shaking), or sleep problems (insomnia);
· severe restless feeling, hyperactivity;
· problems with vision; or
· urinating less than usual or not at all.
Less serious side effects may include:
· dizziness, drowsiness;
· tired feeling;
· dry mouth;
· sore throat, cough;
· nausea, constipation; or
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Anastrozole is an off-white powder with a molecular weight of 293.4. Anastrozole has moderate aqueous solubility (0.5 mg/mL at 25°C); solubility is independent of pH in the physiological range. Anastrozole is freely soluble in methanol, acetone, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran, and very soluble in acetonitrile.
Each tablet contains as inactive ingredients: lactose, magnesium stearate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, and titanium dioxide.
Other Brand :Armotraz
Armotraz is a medication containing anastrozole, belonging to a class of medications known as Nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. It is used for the treatment of breast cancer, after surgery with or without radiation, in postmenopausal women. It works by inhibiting the enzyme Armotraz, which causes the conversion of androgens into estrogens.
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